dilluns, 26 de març de 2012



  • Empowering means individuals are guided by a clearly ariticulated vision of where the organization is going and how they can contribute as individuals. We all desire to know the purpose of the activities in which we engage, what the ultimate objective is, and how we fit into that objective. 
  • Several studies confirm that the most effective way to articulate a vision in a clear and energizing way is by using word pictures, stories, metaphors, and reallife examples. That is, individuals are more likely to understand a vision if it has both right brain (intuitive, pictorial, story-based) as well as left brain (logical, reasonable, performance-based) elements associated with it.
  • For example, if we are gearing up a finacial executive training program, when we show the film "Inside the jobs", or in extend to which we will teach economic history, these executive will have a vision of the personal consecuences of their decisions, when they take decisions with self-determination considering of several alternatives, and they may concern with meaning or how significant are they decisions in the economic world. 
    • SMART goals is a guide that it enhances specific behaviors goals that it carry to outcomes as well as accountability  in the individuals:
      • Specific goals.
      • Measurable goals.
      • Aligned goals.
      • Realistic goals.
      • Time-bound goals.


  • Empower other people is to help them experience personal mastery over some challenge or problem. By successfully accomplishing a task, defeating an opponent, or resolving a problem, people develop a sense of mastery. Personal mastery can be fostered by providing people with the opportunity to accomplish successively more difficult tasks that eventually lead to the accomplishment of desirable goals. The key is to start with easy tasks and then progress by small steps to more difficult tasks until the person experiences a sense of mastery over an entire complex problem. 
  • Managers can help others feel increasingly empowered by assisting them develop an awareness that they can succeed. One way to do this is by breaking apart large tasks and giving workers only one part at a time. Job can be expanded incrementally so that tasks become broader and more complex as workers master the basic elements.
  • This way of do things step a step is called small wins strategy. Continouosly smalls wins leads to a big achievement.

      3. MODELING:

  • To model or show the correct behavior that a worker has to perform in their jobs, is other way to empower. Observing someone else succeed at challenging activities, provides a forcefull impetus for others to believe that they, too, can succeed.
  • In other words, empowering people involves making availeble examples of past success. 


  • Providing people with social and emotional suppor could help to strive empowerment. If people are to feel empowered managers should praise them, encourage them, express approval of them, back them, and reassure them.
  • Managers can empower others, then, by engendering a feeling that they are accepted, taht they are a valued asset, that they are accepted, that they are an integral part of the overall organizational mission or objective. This support can come from either the manager or colleagues.


  • Emotional arousal means replacing negative emotions such as fear, anxiety, or crabbiness with positive emotions such as excitement, passion, or anticipation. Managers help make the work environment fun and attractive. They ensure that people´s right brain (the side that controls emotions and passions) is involved in the work as well as their left brain (the side that controls logic and analysis). The provide positive energy to people, and positive energy is easy to detect in people. When we interact with some people they seem to give us life and vigor. Other people seem to be life-depleting or netatively energizing. 
  • Emotional arousal occurs more likely when what individuals are doing is connected to values they hold dear. To feel a sense of expowerment, workers must see how what they are doing every day is associated with their basic beliefs.
  • Managers can also increase workers' sense of empowerment by holding periodic social gatherings to foster friendships among coworkers.

  • Acquiring information that is viewed as central or strategic in an organization, can be used to build a power base and to make oneself indespensable and influential in that organization.
  • Providing workers with central and strategic information, people gain a sense of expowerment and are more likely to work with the manager´s wishes.
  • The manager actually enhances his or her power base by involving others in the pursuit of desirable outcomes.
  • With more information, people tend to experience more self-determination, personal control, and trust.
  • A manager who wishes to increase an employee´s sense of empowerment will make sure that the employee is given all task-relevant information needed to carry out an assignment.
  • If the information is relevant in the worked context related with their specific task, the organization policies, customers, or the market research staff; in this cases, overload is less likely to occur, so wokers anxiety and burnout with too much data, it might not succeed regardless lack of information.

  • Empowerment is also fostered by providing people with other kinds of resources that help them accomplish their tasks. When managers become "resources directors and obstacle eliminators", they don´t need to represent directors and commanders. One of the primary missions of empowering managers, then, is to help others accomplish their objectives.
  • Materials resources, adequate and ongoing training and development experiences, technical and administrative support, therefore space, time, and equipment are tools which allow to enhance workers empowerment. 
  • They will ensure that these people have access to communication or interpersonal networks that will make their jobs easier. 
  • We can´t have everything he or she desires, the most important resources that empowering managers can provide are those that help people achieve control over their own work and lives; thats means fostering a sense of self-efficacy and self-determination.
  • Empowerment boost when they can see the outcomes of effects of their work, this connection to ultimate customer it will be a source of improvement ideas. For example, resolving problems on the spot.
  • Creating task identity consists of the opportunity to accomplish a whole task. Having task identity implies that individuals can plan, implement, and evaluate the success of their efforts.
  • Clarifying hte connections between individuals´ work and their outcomes and effects fosters empowerment by helping others develop a sense of self-efficacy and a sense of personal consequence.


  • Creating a sense of confidence among workers in the trustworthiness of the manager. Rather than being on guard and suspicious, workers are secure in their feeling that the manager and the organization are honorable. This confidence helps drive out uncertainty, insecurity, and ambiguity in the relationships between employees and the manager.
  • Mistrust behavior is wasteful and unproductive, because people distrust one another, they don´t try hard, they don´t communicate clearly and they don´t collaborate.
  • On the other side, people´s trust leads to experience free, to learn and to contribute without fear of retribution.
  • In addition, admirable and honorable people always create positive energy for others and make them feel more capable.
  • Five factors are specially important in creating a sense of confidence:
    • Reliability:
    • Fairness:
    • Caring:
    • Openness:
    • Competence:

Empowerment: positive effects

Not only Empowerment is a key in bureaucracies, but also outside of this environments, for exemple: studies domonstrate positive effects of empowerment on child development, learning in school, coping with personal stress, and changing personal habits.

L'autonomia i delegació de tasques  que atorguen les característiques de autoeficàcia o sentit del compliment i la competència, autodeterminació o sentit del lliure albir, la competència personal o sentit que els nostres accions tenen conseqüències, significat o sentit que el nostre treball incorporar una sèrie de valors que valorem de forma personal, així com confiança o sentit de la seguretat que tenim amb les persones que ens envolten (totes aquestes característiques del EMPOWERMENT); aquestes característiques no només són útils per ambients empresarials, sinó també en el desenvolupament dels infants, en l'aprenentatge a l'escola, gestionant l'estrès personal, i fins i tot canviant hàbits personals.


Researchers has produced at least nine specific prescriptions for fostering empowerment; that is, producing a sense of competence, choice, impact, value, and security. These include:

  1. Articulating a clear vision and goals.
  2. Fostering personal mastery experiences.
  3. Modeling.
  4. Providing support.
  5. Creating emotional arousal.
  6. Providing necessary information.
  7. Connecting to outcomes.
  8. Creating confidence.
Els investigadors han produït com a mínim nou prescripcions específiques per estimular l'autonomia (empowerment), de format que produeixin les característiques esmentades abans. Aquestes són:

  1. Articular una visió clara dels objectius.
  2. Estimular el domini de les experiències personals, és a dir fer  palès el coneixement implícit.
  3. Modelar.
  4. Proveir suport.
  5. Generar estimulació emocional.
  6. Proveir de la informació necessària.
  7. Connectar amb els resultats.
  8. Generar confiança. 

diumenge, 25 de març de 2012

Jobs meaning

Activities infused with meaning create a sense of purpose, passion, or mission for people. They provide a source of energy and enthusiasm, rather than draining energy and enthusiams from people. Merely getting paid, helping an organization earn money, or just doing a job does not create a sense of meaning for most people. Something more fundamental, more personal, and more value-laden must be linked to the activity. It must be associated with something more human. Almost all people want to feel that they are spending their time on something that will produce lasting benefit, that will make the world a better place, or that is associated with a personal value.

Activitats impregnades de significat generen un sentit de propòsit o utilitat, passió, o missió per la gent. Aquestes provoquen un font d'energia i entusiasmo, en lloc de restar energia i entusiasmo de la gent. Només pel fet de remunerar un treballador, ajudar a una organització a guanyar diners, o només complint amb les obligacions d'un treball, no construeix un sentit del significat per la majoria de la gent. És necessari alguna cosa més fundamental, més personal, i amb un càrrega de valors que el treballador ha de vincular al fet d'efectuar aquesta activitat. Ha de ser associat amb alguna cosa molt més humana. Gairebé tothom vol sentir-se que ells estan invertint el seu temps en alguna cosa que produeix beneficis duradors, que pot produir un món millor, que està associat amb valors personals.


Personal control

Personal control is necessary for people to maintain psychological and physical well-being, when people lose personal control, we usaully label them as insane and psychopathic.

Even small losses of personal control can be harmful physically and emotionally. For exemple, loss of control has been found to lead to depression, stress, anxiety, low morale, loss of productivity, burnout, learned helplessness, and even increased death rates.

Having a sense of personal control, then, appears necessary for health as well as for empowerment.

Traducció Català:

El control personal és necessari per mantenir un cert grau de benestar psicològic i físic, quan les persones perden el control personal, el etiquetem com insans o psicopatològics.

Inclús petits pèrdues del control personal poden resultar físicament i emocionalment danyin. Per exemple, pèrdua del control ha estat trobat com a causa de depressions, estrès, ansietat, baixa moral, pèrdues de productivitat, personal cremat, indefensió apressa, i inclús incrementa les taxes de mortalitat.


dissabte, 17 de març de 2012

Sefl-efficacy a healthy sense that strive ourselves

Roger Goddard found that a "sense of efficacy" among students in a classroom - what he referred to as "collective efficacy"- is a more powerful predictor of success in school than any other single factor. (Goddard, Hoy, & Hoy, 2002).

Roger Goddard va descobrir que tenir sentit de la eficàcia entre els estudiant a classe - referint-se a l'eficàcia en senti col·lectiu - és el factor que més assegurarà uns bons resultats pedagògics que altre factor. 

IN ADDITION: self-efficacy has been found to be a significant factor in oversoming phobias and ansiesties (Bandura, 1986), alcohol and drug abuse (Seeman & Anderson, 1983), eating disorders (Schneider & Agras, 1985), smoking addiction (DiClemente, 1985), depresion (Seligman, 1975), as well as increasing tolerance for pain (neufeld & Tomas, 1977). Recovery from illness and injury, as well as coping with job loss or disruptions, is more effective and more rapid among people who have developed a strong sense of self-efficacy, because they are more phisically and psychologically resilient and are better able to change negative behaviors (Geca, Seff, & Ray, 1988; Schwalbe & Gegcas 1988).

La recerca ha considerat que l'autoeficàcia és factor significatiu per superar fòbies i ansietats, abusos en l'alcohol i les drogues, desordres en l'alimentació, addicció al tabac, depressió, així com també incrementa la tolerància al dolor. La recuperació de malalties i ferides, alhora que també dirigir situacions laborals adverses o pèrdua del lloc de treball, és molt més efectiva i ràpida entre la gent que ha desenvolupat un fort sentit de autoeficàcia, perquè aquestes persones són molt més resistents des del punt de vista físic i psicològic, pel motiu que són més capaces de canviar negatius comportaments.


Es evident que l'ús de les xarxes socials pot contribuir a enfortir aquest sentit de l'autoeficàcia; ja que són capaços de participar en debats, interaccionar amb grups d'opinió, tractar i/o analitzar la informació que ens interessa per afegir les nostres aportacions, les xarxes socials enfortiran aquest sentit que ens farà més forts. Molt important aquest punt.


Three conditions to feel a sense of self-efficacy:

  1.   A belief that they have the ability to perform a task.
  2.   A belief that they are capable of putting forth the necessary effort.
  3.   A belief that no outside obstables will prevent them form acomplishing the task